Lab Report: Conductivity

The formal lab report must have:

Title page, Objectives, Reference the producer from the Lab Manual and prelab, Safety, Waste, Results and observations, Calculations, discussion. The prelab must be typed and attached at the end of the report with the prelab question. The post lab question must be answered and attached at the end of the formal lab report,

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Please use the Lab Manual pdf file that its attached below to write the procedure on your own words, to answer the prelab questions and to answer the post lab question.

Prelab Instructions

Read all of experiment 5 in the lab manual. You will be be completing a modified version of this experiment using a series of fourteen videos, (they used an older version of the lab manual, so we will need to make some adjustments. just the order of the videos are off)

Keeping a Lab Notebook and the PowerPoint, write a prelab for this week’s experiment and complete the Prelab Questions in the lab manual (Typed).

During the lab period you will watch the following videos and record experimental observations about physical and chemical changes. As you complete the experiment you will answer the Procedure Questions in the lab manual.

Video #1

Conductivity intro

Video #2

DI, tap use table 5.9

sucrose, add water use table 5.11

NaCl(s)

Video #3

NaCl with water use table 5.10

0.1 M HgCl2 use table 5.13

0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH use table 5.21

0.1 M NH3 use table 5.23

Video #4

0.1 M NaCl use table 5.10

methanol and add water use table 5.12

Video #5

glacial acetic acid and add water use table 5.14

0.1 M acetic acid use table 5.23

Video #6, 7, and 8

KClO3 use table 5.15

Video #9

xylene, HCl in xylene, add water use tables 5.16 and 5.17

For the conductivity of 6M HCl and 6M NaOH i.e. table 5.18, please refer back to video #3

Video #10

Zn and 6M HCl

Zn and 6 M HC2H3O2 use table 5.20

Video #11

CaCO3 and 6 M HCl

CaCO3 and 6 M HC2H3O2 use table 5.19

Video #12

H2SO4 and Ba(OH)2 use table 5.25 and 5.26

Video #13

HC2H3O2 and NH3 use table 5.24

Video #14

HCl and NaOH use table 5.22

Prelab with Prelab Questions

Prelab with Prelab Questions

Criteria
TitleThe

first page of a new experiment should include the date, experiment name and number to clearly show the start of a new experiment.

Objective

Three to four sentences introducing and explaining the purpose of the experiment to be performed. Be sure to include the experimental technique to be used and determination of unknowns, if applicable. This section should be written in your own words.

Procedure

Reference procedure using correct MLA/APA format. Be sure to leave space after the procedure reference to note any changes (additions, deletions, etc.) you are instructed to make to the procedure.
It is recommended that you write out your procedures, in your own words, prior to the start of lab to help you understand the experiment better, organize your thoughts, and draw any data tables you will need.

Safety

List the any additional safety precautions called for in the experiment; these are usually given in the lab manual.

Waste Treatment

List the any special waste handling procedures called for in the experiment; these are usually given in the lab manual.

Prelab Questions

Complete the prelab questions in the lab manual. Before you turn in your report for grading be sure to learn from and correct your mistakes.

Formal Lab Report: Conductivity

Purpose:

The purpose of completing the Conductivity experiment and worksheets are to help you become familiar with how compounds ionize or dissociate in solutions and apply this knowledge to writing balanced chemical equations.

Skills:

In this lab report you will:

  • Use scientific data to answer questions about your experimental results.
  • Practice writing conventional, total ionic, and net ionic equations.

Knowledge:

This assignment will also help you to become familiar with the following important content information:

  • When compounds fully ionize, partially ionize, and do not ionize.
  • Identify the types of bonds and how they ionize in solution.
  • Write conventional, total ionic, and net ionic equations.

Tasks:

This exercise asks you to collect, organize, analyze, and evaluate data you collected in the lab. You will completely fill-out the

  • prelab questions
  • procedure questions
  • post lab questions

Criteria for Success:

  • Lab Report: Conductivity

    Purpose:

    The purpose of completing the Conductivity experiment and worksheets are to help you become familiar with how compounds ionize or dissociate in solutions and apply this knowledge to writing balanced chemical equations.

    Skills:

    In this lab report you will:

    • Use scientific data to answer questions about your experimental results.
    • Practice writing conventional, total ionic, and net ionic equations.

    Knowledge:

    This assignment will also help you to become familiar with the following important content information:

    • When compounds fully ionize, partially ionize, and do not ionize.
    • Identify the types of bonds and how they ionize in solution.
    • Write conventional, total ionic, and net ionic equations.

    Tasks:

    This exercise asks you to collect, organize, analyze, and evaluate data you collected in the lab. You will completely fill-out the

    • prelab questions
    • procedure questions
    • post lab questions

    Criteria for Success:

    We are building your report writing skills of organizing data, analyzing data, and summarizing data. Incorporate the feedback from your previously graded lab reports.

    • As you write up your report:
      • Be sure that you fix any mistakes in your prelab questions as noted by your instructor.
      • Complete the data tables and questions in the procedure questions.
      • Answer the post lab questions.
    • Before the start of lab on the due date:
      • Upload your prelab, typed report, and post lab questions . Remember that practice make progress.

      General writing style:

      Assume that the audience for your lab report is a scientifically knowledgeable person who is not specifically familiar with this course or with the lab manual. Write your report so that such a person can understand what you did, why you did it, what results you obtained, and what these results mean.Maintain scientific objectivity in your writing. Stay focused on the facts, evidence, and materials of the lab work. Make interpretations of your results based only on scientific knowledge and logical reasoning. Do not include commentary on your feelings, states of mind, or personal learning achievements. That is not to say that such reflections are not important; rather, that subjective commentary does not belong in the lab report, but elsewhere, such as in a personal learning journal.

      Title Page

      Include experiment name, date, your name, your lab partner’s name if appropriate, course number, section number, and your instructor’s name. Your instructor may provide you with a rubric to copy and paste on this page.

      Objective

      The objective section should be a brief description (usually no more than one paragraph) of the goals or purpose of the activity or experiment. That is, why are you doing this experiment? To test a hypothesis? To determine a constant? To characterize a sample? In your objective section, briefly mention the technique/method that will be taken to achieve the goals of the lab work. You will have already written an objective for your lab notebook. Now is the time to revise that objective and add any missing experimental goals.

      Introduction

      The Introduction should explain the scientific question or problem being addressed by the experiment and how it is to be answer/solved. The Introduction should give background on your lab work: include the theory behind the experiment and an explanation of how the procedure used will accomplish the objective. The reader should be able to understand the logic of the experiment simply by reading this section. The Introduction should include definitions/explanations of important terms, ideas, and concepts; and it should contain any relevant mathematical or chemical equations. A typical introduction should be at least several paragraphs but may run to several pages if required to include all relevant background. The introduction will succinctly explain the theoretical basis of the experiment and describe the method that will be used to achieve the objective. In some experiments, there is very little “theory” that can be discussed, for example, learning about a new lab technique or getting familiar with a particular piece of lab equipment. In these cases, simply describe how the technique or piece of equipment facilitates learning a new skill. However, note that many lab instruments are based on scientific principles and the student must decide whether a theoretical discussion regarding the instrument or its use is appropriate; if in doubt, ask your instructor.Some lab reports will require a lengthier Introduction. Some examples:

      • Qualitative experiments that investigate a particular type of chemical reactivity need to address in the introduction some of the pertinent concepts and theories that are presented in the textbook and in the lecture part of the course.
      • Experiments which involve chemical synthesis or the interconversion of one compound into another should include balanced chemical equations for each reaction that is part of the experiment; this should be part of the introduction. Each balanced equation should be labeled (e.g. rxn 1, rxn 2…), so that you may reference the reaction in a latter part of the experiment without rewriting it.
      • Experiments that are much more quantitative in nature will require a brief discussion of the mathematical process to be used in calculating the final results; this should be part of the Introduction. Each mathematical equation should be labeled (e.g. eq. 1, eq. 2), so that you may reference the equations in latter parts of the experiment without rewriting it.

      In very simple terms:

      • Your method description answers the question, “how will the experiment be run?”
      • Your theoretical discussion answers the question, “why does this particular method apply to this experiment?”

      A well-thought-out Introduction is the key to writing a good lab report; quality is more important than quantity (length).

      Procedure

      The only thing that needs to be written in this section is a complete reference (as shown above) for the procedure and any changes that were made to the published procedure. Do NOT type of the experimental procedures that are in the lab manual. Only type experimental procedures that you write yourself.

      Results and Calculations

      The results from your experiment are always entered in this section. Recall in the objective that you asked the question, “What is being investigated in this experiment?” This is the place to answer that question. State your results clearly so the reader knows exactly what happened in the experiment but do not discuss the reasons for your results in this section.Tell the reader exactly what you obtained in the experiment, for example: quantitative results from an experiment (% composition of a substance) or qualitative results (compounds A, B and C were identified as acids; D, E and F were bases).Whenever you include statistical treatment of your data, which is a result which should be entered in this section.Calculations (if any) are done in this section. Show all set-ups for each type of calculation; be explicit! If you must perform the same calculation more than once, you do not have to write the set-up for each one, but it should be clear as to which set-up correlates to which calculation(s). Be sure to include the final results of all calculations- consistently highlight your final answers in some fashion, draw a box around the result, double-underline the result or place final results in a table or chart.It is a good idea to organize your results in a table format to make it easier for the reader to understand the outcome of your experiment. Each table should be numbered (e.g. Table 1: Metal Shot Measurements). If your Data and Observation section has become messy and a bit unorganized, this is the place to “clean it up” and present it to the reader with clarity.

      Discussion

      The Discussion is used to present your evaluation and interpretation of your results. Be sure to include quantitative numerical data and qualitative descriptions where appropriate (e.g. The salicylic acid produced was a white, crystalline solid. The percent yield was found to be 91.3%…). In this section, you compare your results to theoretical expectations. Do the results make sense? If they diverge from expectation, state by how much. Evaluate the significance and agreement of your data statistically. Present specific, sound reasons for discrepancies. Did you obtain a result different from your expectations? Do the results call into question your original hypotheses? What questions (raised in your Objective and Introduction sections) have been answered, or remain unanswered in light of your results? Include in the discussion answers to any questions that were posed within the lab manual.Sometimes the data you obtain in an experiment is straight-forward and self-explanatory. In these cases, your discussion may be brief. However, most of the time, you will need to explain to the reader why you obtained a particular result, especially if your result is different than expected.The Discussion should also include error analysis (when appropriate): explain sources of error and how errors impact your results. Keep your analysis precise and scientific; don’t resort to vague laundry lists of possible mistakes that might have been made. Be sure to discuss only the connections between error analysis and your actual data and observations.

      Conclusion

      Summarize your entire lab report in this section, in one paragraph. State concisely how your results achieved the goals set out in your Objective section. What is the “bottom line”? What is the “take-home message” of the experiment? These should be stated in your conclusion. State your major results in the Conclusion section. If your most important results are captured in a particular set of numerical data.

      Questions

      Check the assignment for any required questions to be answered in the lab report. For some lab reports, the only questions to be answered may be the pre-lab questions. For questions with numerical answers, always show your calculations. These may be handwritten if they involve calculations.The Lab Manual PDF will be attached hrer:

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