Short answer questions for research methods for psychology

  1. In what kind of research area (i.e., the topic) are carryover effects desirable? ___________________________________________________________________

 

  1. To completely counterbalance a study with 5 different treatments, you would need: ________ treatment orders.

 

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  1. There are a number of ways to calculate inter-rater/inter-coder reliability of observations (or of content analysis categories, for example) :

 

  1. What is the preferred approach called? _________________________
  2. Why is it preferred?: ____________________________________________________________

 

 

  1. Why might researchers choose to use 5 and not 4 anchors in a scale?: ______________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. An experimenter wants to test the effects of caffeine on memory and wants to know the effects of one vs. two shots of espresso on recall. The experimenter wants to complete the study in a single day. (3 points)
  2. Should the experimenter select between or within subjects?: ____
  3. Why: __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
  4. As described, what other component would you recommend adding to this experimental design?:

____________________________________________________________

 

  1. In a study, the researcher wanted to test the hypothesis that there is a significant difference in proportions of 1st year vs. 4th year students in having a car on campus or not.

The appropriate statistical approach to answer this question is:________________________

 

  1. Give an example of a mixed design:

________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

  1. In updating the Common Rule that went into effect in January 2019, many types of studies that formerly required IRB now do not (they fall under what is known as the Exempt categories). However, if you want to use deception, you have two basic choices: 1) pre-warning participants that they may be deceived and obtaining their consent to be deceived 2) not pre-warning participants but instead undergoing IRB review (expedited or full, depending on the extent of deception).

 

List one disadvantage you see of pre-warning participants about deception.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

  1. Professor Devlin is doing a project in which she is looking at the effect of the size of art (none, small, medium, large) in an exam room and the length of time (10 minutes vs. 45 minutes) the patient has to wait to see the physician. Professor Devlin has 5 DVs: satisfaction with the visit; judgments of quality of care; judgments of comfort with the room; competence of the physician; whether you would recommend the medical practice to a friend (these are conceptually related DVs).

 

  1. this experiment is not suited for a within subjects design: T F
  2. What is the appropriate statistical analysis for this design? ___________
  3. Would you need to use a Tukey? Yes No
  4. Would you need to check for an interaction effect? __Yes __ No

 

  1. Our text shows a graph (Figure 9.2); the lines on the graph are not parallel. Specifically, having a time limit affected non-sailors significantly more than it affected sailors. If there is a significant interaction effect, what kind of statistical follow-up test do you need to conduct?:

_______________________________________________

 

  1. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with 10 participants per condition (cell) would require __________ participants.

 

  1. People occasionally confuse the terms “mixed design” and “mixed method.”

Define each:

 

Mixed-design:________________________________

 

Mixed-method:________________________________

 

 

  1. People sometimes mistakenly think that because there is no manipulation of independent variables in correlational research, there are no internal or external validity concerns. List a threat to internal or external validity in correlational research:

_________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Increasing the number of levels in a research design has many benefits, but it also has a significant drawback. List it:

____________________________________________

 

  1. Deception is usually categorized as passive or active.

List an example of active deception: ___________________________________

 

  1. Why is using a single dependent variable a risky approach if you are investigating a new area of research?: __________________________

 

33.Name one reason we use a scale total as the DV (e.g., the Rosenberg scale total) treating each item in the scale as its own DV.: ____________________________________________

____________________________________________

 

  1. When you reverse code variables (e.g., for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), ASD recommends that your reverse code into NEW variables, not the same ones.

Why?: ______________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Assuming you are doing a study with scales that have reverse-coded items, list the steps you need to take (in sequence) before you get to the point of actually running the statistical tests to evaluate your hypotheses ):

1)____________________________________________ 2)____________________________________________ 3)____________________________________________ 4)____________________________________________

 

  1. Excluding participants to get to p < .05 and collecting and analyzing many conditions but reporting only those where p < .05 are examples of: _________________________.

 

  1. If Dr. Myers (in question #41) wants to make sure that the racial groups from which he sampled reflected the proportion of those races in the population, he would need to do what kind of sampling?:

_______________________________________

 

 

  1. Professor Devlin is doing a study that examines the effect of the location of a medical scribe during an office visit (by the end of the exam table, at the side of the exam table, or behind the patient’s head at the top of the exam table), and whether the scribe is certified or not (i.e., certified or in training).

 

  1. In this fully crossed design, there are how many “cells”? _________
  2. When Prof. Devlin downloads the data for the study from Qualtrics into SPSS,

how many new variables will she need to insert in order to test for interaction effects? :_______________

 

  1. Moderna has reported that its vaccine is “94.5%” effective. If you were rounding this number to two integers, what would the value be (following the rounding rules)?: _______________

 

 

The data on these screenshots come from our “Exteriors” data set, the same one we used for the data analysis assignment. This is an analysis in which Sex and Race were used as fixed factors (quasi-IVs) and Environment 3.2 and Care 4.2 were used as conceptually- related DVs. Answer the following questions based on the screenshots. Fill in the blanks as required on your Answer Sheet. When you are asked to write out a result, do so in APA format (i.e., with italics as needed and appropriate spacing). Data will be provided in separate document.

 

  1. The degrees of freedom for the multivariate analysis for RACE are ( __, ___).

 

  1. Using APA format, write out the appropriate statistical information presenting the multivariate effect for Race: ______________________________

 

  1. Using APA format, write out the appropriate statistical information presenting the univariate effect of Race for Environment 3.2:______________________

 

  1. What does the Post Hoc Tukey test for Race for Environment 3.2 show (that is, which races are almost significantly different from each other in their evaluation of Environment 3.2?: ____________________

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