FORBIDDEN ARCHAEOLOGY: Michael Cremo Stanford University Lecture April 27, 2012
1. Cremo supports his opinion that there should be reports of archaeological evidence for humans existing much further back in time than 150,000 years ago, based off of several examples. The fisrt example comes from a scientist named Virginia Steen- McIntyre. Her and her team went to a professional excavation area in Mexico where they were able to dig up several different rocks that contained stone tools and animal bones. Using all four different aging methods on the site, geologists were able to come to a conclusion that the excavation site was at least 250,000 years old. Many believed that this was impossible due to their idea that humans were not around 250,000 years ago and were not capable of making such tools. The scientists believed that humans were not in North America until 20,000 years ago. The geologist refused to publish the age of the site because they believed that it was not possible for the sight to be that old despite their findings. Jacques Boucher de Perthes is known as one of the modern founders of archaeology. In an excavation site near Abbeville, France, Jacque found an anatomically correct human jaw. The jaw was found in the fifth layer of his excavation site along with several other tools. According to geologists, the specific layer in which the jaw was found is about 430,000 years old. Many did not believe that this was possible and thought that someone went and buried a jaw down there. Along with the jaw, teeth were also found in
the layer. In Buenos Aires in the early 20th century, an anatomically correct human skull- cap was found. The skull-cap was found under a layer of Tosca. All tosca is believed to be at least one and a half million years old, which dates back the skull-cap. In 1913 at Olduvai Gorge, a skull was found by scientist Hans Reck. The skeleton head was found in upper bed two which dates back to 1.15-1.7 million years old. This was a very controversial discovery. These are just a few of the many examples that Cremo continues to provide throughout his lecture.
2. Cremo’s methodology regarding human archeology is very different from what we are told to believe. We are told that humans have not been around for very long, perhaps only 150,000 years old. Cremo however does not believe this to be true. Cremo believes that humans have been around for millions of years. In 1855, an anatomically correct human jaw was found in the Red Crag formation. The Red Crag formation is located in Foxhall, England. The anatomically correct human jaw was found sixteen feet underground. According to modern geologists and Collyer, the Red Crag formation is 2-3 million years old. 2-3 million years old is way older than what we are told about humans only being about 150,000 years old. A second example that supports Cremo’s methodology is when a scientist named Virginia Steen-McIntyre discovered stone tools along with some bones in an excavation site. Using all four different aging methods on the site, geologists were able to come to a conclusion that the excavation site was at least 250,000 years old. Once again way older than what we are told to believe. Many believed that this was impossible due to their idea that humans were not around 250,000 years ago and were not capable of making such tools. Scientist also believed that north
America was empty until about 20,000 years ago when humans settled in North America. This discovery once again supports Michael Cremo’s methodology.
3. According to Cremo, the difference between primary and secondary literature is based off of who writes the literature. Primary literature is when original reports are published by investigators in professional scientific literature. Secondary literature is based off of primary literature. Secondary literature includes several things like textbooks, surveys, studies and more things like that. An example of secondary literature is Robert H. Collyer’s book that reports on the discovery of the human jaw from Suffolk. Collyer’s book was titled Anthropological Review, Vol.V No.XVII. An example of a primary literature would be Virginia Steen-McIntyre’s scientific journal that she used in the excavation site in Mexico. Virginia Steen-McIntyre’s journal was titled Steen- McIntyre, V., Fryxell, R., and Malde, H.E. (1981) Geologic evidence for age of deposits at Hueyatlaco archaeological site, Valsequillo, Mexico.
4. In Cremo’s opinion, he believes that secondary texts do not contain any evidence that indicates extreme human antiquity. This is because modern scientists and geologists believe that humans only age back to 150,000 years. Any ideas that indicate extreme human antiquity from primary texts seems crazy so they completely “erase” it and do not bother to mention it. These scientists only believe that humans have been around for 150,000 years and they fail to look at new evidence that disproves the one’s they have originally studied and believed.
5. Virginia Steen-McIntyre’s journal, Steen-McIntyre, V., Fryxell, R., and Malde, H.E. (1981) Geologic evidence for age of deposits at Hueyatlaco archaeological site, Valsequillo, Mexico, is an example of a primary text that offers evidence of extreme
human antiquity. J.D. Whitney’s reports on the California Gold mine discoveries is another primary text that supports extreme human antiquity. Carlos Ribeiro’s footnote’s on discoveries from Miocene period is another primary example that supports human antiquity. All of this evidence found in these primary texts is extremely valid because they are primary texts. They are valid because the scientists who discovered these artifacts and bones were the one’s who were actually there in person and were able to take notes while looking at everything.
6. David Oldroyd believes that Forbidden Archaeology has raised a lack in certainty of scientific claims. Oldroyd means that due to Cremo’s findings that disprove many scientific claims that have been around for hundreds of years, many people do not know what to believe. An example of this would be when Virginia Steen-McIntyre discovered human artifacts and bones that dated back 250,000 years ago in North America. This conflicted with what many were originally told about humans from scientists. They were always told that humans didn’t exist until 150,000 years ago and that humans didn’t begin to settle in North America until 20,000 years ago. I personally agree with Oldroyd’s statement because I believe that when two drastically different scientific views are put out there, it id very hard to know which one is the right one.
7. When geologist Virginia Steen-McIntyre self-published her teams findings regarding the dating of an archaeological site near Pueblo, Mexico they received a very bad response. Many scientists criticized their team and reacted with extreme negativity. According to Cremo this response was received because many believe that humans did not exist 250,000 years ago. Specifically in North America where the bone was found, it is believed that humans did not exist there until 20,000 years ago. The scientists were not
able to look at Steen-McIntyre’s evidence and realize that she may be true. Instead they stuck to what they were told and did not bother to open their minds to new scientific ideas.
8. According to Cremo’s research, the presence of anatomically modern human beings in Europe can trace all the way back to 430,000 years ago. Cremo bases this opinion off of Boucher de Perthes finding of an anatomically correct human jaw along with some teeth in Abbeville, France. Boucher de Perthes found the jaw and teeth in the fifth layer of his excavation site, which dated back to 430,000 years old. Boucher de Perthes critics criticized his finding and did not believe it. To prove Boucher de Perthes wrong, they developed a theory that someone from a few thousand years ago dug up a roman bone and placed it down in the fifth layer so that is why the jaw was there. This theory was accepted by almost everyone and no one believed Boucher de Perthes theory that the jaw was at least 430,000 years old. Boucher de Perthes later found anatomically correct human teeth scattered around that seemed to refute the criticism that he was receiving.
9. The pre-ensanadan formation is solidified volcanic ash deposits in the dried-up bed of the ancient Valsequillo Lake near Puebla, Mexico. In this formation Silvia Gonzalez found over 200 prints, including those of humans, birds, and animals with cloven hooves. Gonzalez originally reported that these tracks were 45,000 years old. In December of 2005, Paul Renne and his team retested the rock formation in which the prints were found and concluded that it was 1.3 million years old. This contribute’s to Cremo’s theory because in this case they dated human existence all the way back to 1.3 million years ago.
10. In 1913 at Olduvai Gorge, a skull was found by scientist Hans Reck. The skeleton head was found in upper bed two which dates back to 1.15-1.7 million years old. This was a very controversial discovery due to its tremendous age. This finding conflicts with later discoveries when it is said that a skull was lost and kept in a German museum in World War II. A soldier then later found in a box at another museum, a few slivers of bone that were believed to belong to the skull. Reiner Protsch was a scientist at Frankfurt University. He tremendously contributed to the controversy surrounding Reck’s finding at Olduvai Gorge because he was a scientist who originally radiocarbon dated the bone. It was later discovered however that Reiner Protsch had falsified several radiocarbon bone datings. Reiner Protsch should be discredited because it is not possible to know which ones he falsified and which ones he did not falsify.
11. In 1855, an anatomically correct human jaw was found in the Red Crag at Foxhall, England, sixteen feet underground. Foxhall is located in Northern England. According to modern geologists and Collyer, the Red Crag formation is 2-3 million years old. In 1867, Robert H. Collyer reported on this discovery in his Anthropological Review, Vol.V No.XVII.
12. In 1979 Mary Leaky made a discovery in Laetoli, Tanzania. Leaky made a discovery of footprints that were in layers of solidified liquid ash. These footprints were discovered when Leaky was looking in an excavation site. Leaky along with Tim White and many other scientists agreed that the footprints were for sure human footprints and could not have been footprints from anything else. Even though they knew that the age of the rock was very old they believed that it was impossible for humans like us to have made those footprints. Leaky came up with an explanation that there must have been an
ape like creature with anatomically human feet that must have made those footprints. This explanation was not supported in the fossil record due to their being no scientific evidence that these, chimp like creatures existed around this time period.
13. Giuseppe Ragazzoni discovered a human skull in Castenedolo, Italy in middle pliocin formations that were between 3 and 4 million years old. According to Giuseppe Ragazzoni’s findings, this sample is four million years old. Ragazzoni’s critics however believed that the skull was only 2,000 years old. They believed that when the human died a grave was dug that allowed the human to go to the layer of formation that dated back four million years which is also known as intrusive burial. Ragazzoni defended his data by stating that if an intrusive burial did take place than the overlying layers of rock would have been disturbed. This however was not the case, the overlying layers were perfectly in tact with no signs of disruption. This discovery supports Cremo’s theory on Forbidden Archaeology because he to believes that human beings date back way farther then we are led to believe. Due to his finding of a human skull from 4 million years ago, he believes that human existence dates very far back.
14. During the California gold rush in the nineteenth century, many miners found ancient human artifacts and bones. These artifacts were believed to date back to the Eocene period, which means that they were 50 million years old. The human bones that were found along side the artifacts helped to properly assert the age of the artifacts. These discoveries were first noted by Geologist J.D. Whitney. Whitneys findings are not published in any modern books today due to knowledge filtration. William B. Holmes believed that if Whitney properly understood human evolution then he would not have come to these conclusions. Holmes believes that if one’s findings or theories are not in
line with MacDonald theory then the fact or theory should be completely forgotten. When there was a program aired on NBC that used several of Cremo’s discoveries, the FCC got upset and believed that they were playing false information. The FCC wanted NBC to issue an apology and they wanted to fine NBC.
15. Cremo’s stance regarding the coexistence of anatomically modern humans and so-called ape men is that it didn’t ever happen. Cremo has this stance on this topic because he has seen no evidence that indicates the existence of ape men. He does however has several pieces of evidence that indicate anatomically modern humans were alive then. Cremo’s beliefs contradict the view of the academic mainstream and Darwinists. This is because the academic mainstream and darwinists believe that ape men were around during this period and there was absolutely no existence of anatomically modern humans. They believe that anatomically modern humans later derived from these ape men so there is no way they were in existence at the same time.
16. The vedic perspective is a perspective in which one believes that their religion is the source of things. They believe that there are higher powers that create everything on this earth. The modern scientific perspective completely disagrees with this. This perspective believes that everything forms for a reason and there is a scientific explanation. These sides are mutually exclusive because one may choose to believe what they wish. Once they have an idea however they do not change their mind and they stick to their briefs.
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